Fractal Geometry and Computer Graphics
Computer graphic has made the designers of the computer games simulate the games with no need for calculations via game structuring software. In this case we point out some works done this field. In this paper model of 3D and lighting of the shapes in computer games are emphasized. To have high quality computer games and to evaluate the colors of the images, it is possible to use OpenGL and transform the graphic states of the images to the bit vectors and present the images with high quality.
Of the other specifications of 3D shapes, the capacity of absorbing light and maintaining it must be pointed.
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Without lighting, nothing is visible and if the shapes are visible they are presented in 2D. When we draw the shapes of a game, we must consider the lighting of them because even the best 3D shapes will not be considerable without light.
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Researchers  have discussed the challenges of software engineering. They have studied the subject of 3D models in computer games. They have described that one of the debates on 3D graphic is the texture. Texture is the 2D image which is mapped in a special way on the surface and the 3D things to make it seem real. One of the other factors of 3D shapes creation is the lighting. In lighting calculations, the angel of the source light and the surface of the things must be finely adjusted.
They have also emphasized that to make the development procedure of the computer games better, the software engineering patterns must be used. Researchers in  have used the OpenGL technology to structure and develop the specifications of the 3D images. In development of the computer games, the most important factor is the images. Of the most important specifications of 3D graphic done on the images are reading, presenting, location change, rotation and filtering the images.
In OpenGL technology, the 3D graphic is based on vertex.
Computer graphics of Mandelbrot fractal - Stock Image - A/ - Science Photo Library
In fact using the vertex, it is possible to create the shapes and it is possible to transfer them to the 3D environment and create the moving objects easily. They have also cited that in 3D graphic, matrix are used to create the shapes. So, it is possible to use them and make many transformations on the 3D objects. Transfer, rotations, size change and the reflection on a surface for example to make shadow could be implemented by matrix operations.
Also they have examined the OpenGL functions for creation of 3D objects. One of the most used techniques in animation is the texture. Using the texture technique it is possible to transform the shapes into many forms. The results of the examinations show that the OpenGL s very efficient in forming the shapes and the 3D models.
Fang  is discussed 3D simulation of terrain according fractal. One of the most advance techniques in 3D graphic is the ability of making any kind of terrain and the natural environments.
It is possible to simulate mountains, plains, hills and any other non-equal surfaces using the fractal. In this paper, the fractal theory and fractal Brownian motion have been studied. And the 3D objects like cloud and sky are created using fractal. So, now the graphic capabilities have made many changes in development of the computer games which are the general part of the computer games industry. It also cited in this paper that the 2D and 3D models, all utilize the graphic capabilities to logically balance the relationship between the quality of the images and the speed of execution of the games.
The reference  has plotted the natural shapes using the fractal geometry. The fractal geometry makes the plotting the natural shapes like sky and the mountains possible. So, using fractal, it is possible to simulate the real world phenomena. In  have discussed the 3D computer games development using the programming and game engines fields. In this paper it is described that the programming languages have some capabilities and also some limitations each, and any of them are used in any special field and some are more dynamic in computer games world. Also the use of API is a big change in structuring the computer games and have led to the computer graphic and now the computer games are directly or indirectly via the game engine use the programming interface.
Also, in the results section, some samples of games are designed using the game engine and programming functions. So, the development of the computer games using the advanced game making tools has made the game making procedure easier for the programmers and the designers. In development of the computer games it is very important to utilize the tools.
Computer Graphics Fractals
These tools include knowledge and the experiment of the people for development of the computer games. One of the very important tools in computer games is programming the graphic environments. The computer games are potential in graphic, simulation and imaging and are considered by many users.
Lately the progress of the 3D games has been one of the poles of game making industry . So, the computer game industry is a very high profit making one all over the world and the all day's progress of it has made many companies to design the games which are powerful in multi-dimensional graphic. The process of making and developing the computer games was first done by the elementary programmers. But these activities have changed to a master level since And the game developing teams started to work professionally on the game designing .
So, the process of the completion and the complexity of the designing the computer games has developed and any part of game developments has been done by the masters of that part. Now the game engines are one of the most complex computer programs in the teams of developing the computer games. Game engines are in fact the software element and the main element of any computer game which produce 2D and 3D graphic environments . The game engine uses the basic technology and makes the development of the games easier and provides a possibility to execute the games on the game councils and the computers.
In development of the computer games of 2D and 3D, the factors like lighting, texture and rendering are very effective. Shadows are in direct relation to the light and are divided into three groups.
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In the first type, the shadow is created by the fixed shape on the smooth surface. In the second type the shadow is created on the rendered images. This is the fast way of shadow making. But it is possible to use it to shadow on the smooth surface. The most flexible shadows are the volume shadows.
Volume shadows can be created on any surface and they also can make shadow on the moving things. This shadow is the most complex and the slowest kind of shadows. One of the other processes taking place working with the images, is the lighting of pats of the images. This technique is very applicable in here dimensional graphics. It is also possible to combine the colored elements of the images and map texture on the shapes of the game environment. One of the characteristics of the game engines is the Rendering which creates the 3D capability.
Rendering is a capability which transforms the basic graphic shapes to the images . This kind of the engines are often called rendering Engine or 3D engines. So, engines create capabilities required for 3D images for the developers of the computer games.
Form in the Natural Environment: Fractal Computer Graphics and Wassily Kandinsky
The 3D or rendering engines are structured according to the graphic technologies like direct 3D or OpenGL which cause hardware dependency from the graphic cards. So, one of the requirements of developing the computer games is the knowledge in the wide area of science like computer graphic, image processing and computer calculations.
The development of the computer games and computer graphic needs mastering in mathematics and computer algorithms. Designing and programming the computer games are of the most important activities in computer game industry which investigate on the professional teams of game creation So, the structuring the computer game seems like development of the software systems for development of the very advanced samples may a team of professionals in designing, animation and programming work for many years. In computer games industry, the 3D graphic models are faced in many action designing and have been developed by progress of the tools of this industry .
The computer games are not only the tools for business activities, but also are used in many training fields and the computer industry is progressing in training sections . So, it is possible to develop and design the 2D and 3D games in a way that they will be used for training in programming, different learning strategies, increasing the concentration, competitiveness and increasing the different professions. In fractal geometry, it is possible to create different models of fractal and model the different shapes and using the fractal geometry, the accurate status and the irregular shapes could be combined and the complex shapes are created .
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